Energy sector Reform: where it stands
(Vivien Foster, 2019), Rethinking Power Sector Reform in the Developing World report suggests that future power sector reforms should be shaped by context, driven by outcomes, and informed by alternatives with a clear departure from the normative 1990s power sector reform prescription which comprised a package of four structural reforms: Regulation (through the creation of an autonomous regulatory entity); Restructuring (entailing corporatization and full vertical and horizontal unbundling of the utility); Private sector participation (particularly in generation and distribution); Competition (ultimately in the form of a wholesale power market).
(AfDB, 2019), Revisiting Reforms in the Power Sector in Africa, asserts that the power sector in Africa still largely retains the traditional integrated monopoly utility structure, although many have included IPPs, despite the standard model Prescription of the reform targeting all segments of the power sector value-chain in Africa, and in very different ways pointing that the standard model reforms generally did not prioritize social and political goals of expanding access to electricity and clean energy sources, nor improving equity or affordability conditions.
Ethiopia being among the laggards in terms of implementing the standard policy prescription, it has taken the first few steps including setting up an independent regulator and vertically unbundling the state monopoly in to two separate utilities since the beginning of 2013. The reform process continues to unfold albeit a slow and cautious pace.